(Co-Infections Study) The Epidemiology of HIV/STI co-infections in among African and Caribbean men in Toronto – KALI Black Men’s Study

Project Name:

KALI Study

Funding Dates:



Principal Investigators:

LaRon E. Nelson , Wangari Tharao , Winston Husbands , Ting Sa , Nanhua Zhang , Sameer Kushwaha , David Absalom and Rupert Kaul


Purpose and Objectives:

The main purpose of the Kali (Swahili for “fierce” or “hot”) study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV, STIs, and HIV/STI co-infections in a community-recruited, non-probability sample of Black men from Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A secondary purpose of the study was to examine whether past histories of STIs were associated with current HIV infection. The study also assessed whether HIV and STI prevalence, as well as associations between STI histories and current HIV infection, differed between Black MSM and MSW.


A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological study was conducted with a non-probability sample of Black men recruited from Toronto, Ontario. Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews (ACASI) surveys were used to collect demographic and behavioral data. Biological specimens were collected to screen for HIV and other STIs.


ACB men in Toronto



Start and End Date:



The prevalence of HIV (9.2%), syphilis (7.2%), hepatitis B (2.7%), and high-risk anal HPV (8.4%) and penile HPV (21.3%) infections were high in Black men (N = 487) and were significantly increased in Black MSM compared with MSW; the prevalence of syphilis and high-risk HPV were also increased in men living with HIV. Men with a history of syphilis (OR = 6.48, 95% CI: 2.68,15.71), genital warts (OR = 4.32, 95% CI: 1.79,10.43) or genital ulcers (OR = 21.3, 95% CI: 1.89,239.51) had an increased odds of HIV infection.

Project Indicators and Outcomes:

Funding Sources:

OHTN , CIHR, University of Rochester Center for AIDS Research